In North American English, wrench is the standard term. The most common shapes are called open-end wrench and box-end wrench. In American English, spanner refers to a specialised wrench with a series of pins or tabs around the circumference. (These pins or tabs fit into the holes or notches cut into the object to be turned.) In American commerce, such a wrench may be called a spanner wrench to distinguish it from the British sense of spanner.
As the output of an impact wrench, when hammering, is a very short impact force, the actual effective torque is difficult to measure, with several different ratings in use. As the tool delivers a fixed amount of energy with each blow, rather than a fixed torque, the actual output torque changes with the duration of the output pulse. If the output is springy or capable of absorbing energy, the impulse will simply be absorbed, and virtually no torque will ever be applied, and somewhat counter-intuitively, if the object is very springy, the wrench may actually turn backwards as the energy is delivered back to the anvil, while it is not connected to the hammer and able to spin freely.[citation needed] A wrench that is capable of freeing a rusted nut on a very large bolt may be incapable of turning a small screw mounted on a spring. "Maximum torque" is the number most often given by manufacturers, which is the instantaneous peak torque delivered if the anvil is locked into a perfectly solid object. "Working torque" is a more realistic number for continually driving a very stiff fastener. "Nut-busting torque" is often quoted, with the usual definition being that the wrench can loosen a nut tightened with the specified amount of torque in some specified time period. Accurately controlling the output torque of an impact wrench is very difficult, and even an experienced operator will have a hard time making sure a fastener is not under-tightened or over-tightened using an impact wrench. Special socket extensions are available, which take advantage of the inability of an impact wrench to work against a spring, to precisely limit the output torque. Designed with spring steel, they act as large torsion springs, flexing at their torque rating, and preventing any further torque from being applied to the fastener. Some impact wrenches designed for product assembly have a built-in torque control system, such as a built-in torsion spring and a mechanism that shuts the tool down when the given torque is exceeded. When very precise torque is required, an impact wrench is only used to snug down the fastener, with a torque wrench used for the final tightening. Due to the lack of standards when measuring the maximum torque, some manufacturers are believed to inflate their ratings, or to use measurements with little bearing on how the tool will perform in actual use.[citation needed] Many air impact wrenches incorporate a flow regulator into their design, either as a separate control or part of the reversing valve, allowing torque to be roughly limited in one or both directions, while electric tools may use a variable speed trigger for the same effect.

A useful accessory for a socket-wrench set is a handle equipped with a mechanism that measures the amount of torque, or turning effort, exerted by the wrench on the nut or bolt. One type of torque handle has two arms attached to the head, which carries the socket that fits the bolt or nut to be tightened; one arm carries the torque-indicating scale and remains fixed relative to the head, while the other arm carries the handgrip and is bent, relative to the head and the scale, when a bolt is tightened. A pointer on the bent arm indicates the torque on the scale. The purpose of a torque wrench is to make sure that screws and bolts in bolted assemblies are installed with sufficient tightness to prevent loosening during use, without being overtightened.
The ability to remove lug nuts is largely dependent on how powerful your tool actually is. However, the answer is yes, you should be able to remove a lug nut using one of these tools. In order to remove a lug nut, most lug nuts will need to be removed with at least 100 ft-lbs of torque. This is equivalent to 1200 in-lbs should you need an inch conversion instead of a foot conversion. We know that will take at least 100 ft-lbs of torque to remove the lug nut because that is about what it takes to put a lug nut into place.
Let the battle begin! Impacts galore. Full #shootout on the site soon. This is the new @milwaukeetool 1/2" high torque impact model 2767 starting things off for us, on one of our tests. These are 10 x 7/8" grade 8 hardened bolts, torqued to 500 ft-lbs. Stay tuned. . . . . . #tools #impact #cordless #mechanic #shop #shoplife #carsofinstagram #hotrod #toolsofthetrade #garagelife #garage #nbhd #NothingButHeavyDuty #milwaukeetool
Wrenches with one fixed and one adjustable parallel jaw can be used on various sizes of bolts and nuts within a limited range. On one type the jaws are at right angles to the handle; this wrench is known as a monkey wrench. On another type, originally called a Crescent wrench, the jaws are almost parallel to the handle. On both types the movable jaw is adjusted by turning a worm that engages a rack of teeth cut into the jaw.
Power. Yes, at the end of the day it’s all about that delicious power, baby! Let’s face it; if a regular wrench were enough for the job, you’d just use that. The fact that sometimes (often in fact) it’s a real struggle to loose some rusted on or tight bolts is the reason Impact Wrenches were invented. They put an incredible amount of power right into the palm of your hand.
As you plan to buy a cordless impact wrench, it’s important to understand that while it generates plenty of torque, it’s usually less than comparable devices that use compressed air. Because of this, a cordless impact wrench is an excellent option for smaller jobs. It’s ideal for a home workshop where space is at a premium. Because a cordless impact wrench uses rechargeable batteries, it can be a little heavier than the corded variety, but does offer much greater mobility, especially in areas too tight or remote to accommodate a power cord.
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Many mechanics probably have the MAC Tools BWP151 in their tool arsenal, and rightly so. This is a very powerful impact gun, and it shows. In the end, the MAC BWP151 finished with 81.4 points in our shootout. In the power category, it and the DeWALT finished neck and neck, in 3rd and 4th place, so it delivers plenty of power. The MAC Tools impact should have done much better in our speed (repetitive power) testing, but it seemed to have a fraction of a second longer lag, from the time you pull the trigger until the gun starts.

Impact wrenches are available in all sizes and in several styles, depending on the application. ¼" drive wrenches are commonly available in both inline (the user holds the tool like a screwdriver, with the output on the end) and pistol grip (the user holds a handle which is at right angles to the output) forms, and less commonly in an angle drive, which is similar to an inline tool but with a set of bevel gears to rotate the output 90°. ⅜" impacts are most commonly available in pistol grip form and a special inline form known as a "butterfly" wrench, which has a large, flat throttle paddle on the side of the tool which may be tilted to one side or the other to control the direction of rotation, rather than using a separate reversing control, and shaped to allow access into tight areas. Regular inline and angle ⅜" drive impact wrenches are uncommon, but available. ½" drive units are virtually only available in pistol grip form, with any inline type being virtually impossible to obtain, due to the increased torque transmitted back to the user and the greater weight of the tool requiring the larger handle. ¾" drive impact wrenches are again essentially only available in pistol grip form. 1" drive tools are available in both pistol grip and "D handle" inline, where the back of the tool has an enclosed handle for the user to hold. Both forms often also incorporate a side handle, allowing both hands to hold the tool at once. 1¼" and larger wrenches are usually available in "T handle" form, with two large handles on either side of the tool body, allowing for maximum torque to be applied to the user, and giving the best control of the tool. Very large impact wrenches (up to several hundred thousand foot-pounds of torque) usually incorporate eyelets in their design, allowing them to be suspended from a crane, lift, or other device, since their weight is often more than a person can move. A recent design combines an impact wrench and an air ratchet, often called a "reactionless air ratchet" by the manufacturers, incorporating an impact assembly before the ratchet assembly. Such a design allows very high output torques with minimal effort on the operator, and prevents the common injury of slamming one's knuckles into some part of the equipment when the fastener tightens down and the torque suddenly increases. Specialty designs are available for certain applications, such as removing crankshaft pulleys without removing the radiator in a vehicle.
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